Analysis of Gegevens Structures on the Ethereum Blockchain



The Screenplay Overview ter chapter 1 demonstrates the many envisioned use-cases for the blockchain. Ethereum is te rapid development and is programma on releasing four major versions within the next year, with the last version switching the fundamental overeenstemming algorithm. What thesis upgrades will switch the toneel ter detail, is uncertain. Hence will this thesis assume the Ethereum toneel spil it stands at the time of writing, and will avoid too much speculating on coming switches. The script selected is consequently a screenplay which has a brief time to market and could use today’s version of Ethereum.

Pureswaran et nu. explains fresh digital economies this way: “The IoT creates the capability to digitize, sell and supply physical assets spil lightly spil with virtual goods today. [. ] Te a device driven democracy, conference rooms, hotel rooms, cars and warehouse bays can themselves report capacity, utilization and availability te real-time.” [p.13] Pureswaran et reeds. further claims that “By reducing transaction and marketing costs, and enabling partnerships for innovation, the IoT will create fresh collaborative value.” [p.15]


The report envisions autonomous transactions inbetween a washer, a retailer and other parties. The script is cracked down into three features. The very first feature is to liquidate need for refilling the detergent compartment of the washer. The washer can, by be given an identity on the blockchain and a corresponding brainy contract, embark it’s autonomous life. The brainy contract has some parameters set by either the vendor or the proprietor. When the washer is running brief on detergent, the washer will autonomously negotiate with the network before purchasing more. The washer takes the set parameters into consideration when negotiating e.g. delivery time, environment and authorized reseller.

This feature can increase competition ter the marketplace by removing the influence of the brand and the shelf-placement with a brainy contract making the best choice for the washer and the proprietor. Spil the marketplace is online, can fresh players join the competition lighter, while it’s today is hard to stand up to big companies ter the marketplace. Some homes have different price tiers depending on their current power consumption. Others are self-sufficient different times of the day e.g. from solar panels. The washer negotiates with other wise appliances ter the huis to save money. Some devices have power saving modes they can come in for a limit period e.g. a freezer, other devices can communicate with the holder e.g. choosing inbetween switching off the TV or delaying the washing machine. Lastly does the washer do autonomous self-service. The washer detects a potential air filterzakje failure and finds an authorized service center. The service center confirms that it is authorized and proceeds with validating the units warranty. Similar to when purchasing detergent, will the machine make an assessment of the best service center to choose or present the top choices to the proprietor. A directly updated marketplace of authorized service centers will permit the end-user to quickly making the presently best choice for hier. It also opens the market for fresh players te the service marketplace, one can expect one of the challenges when being fresh is getting users to compare the quality and price of service with the regular chosen company. The autonomous self-service keeps the machine working, removing frustrating for the possessor. It also attempts to save money and opens the marketplace for fresh players.

Thus will this thesis concentrate on describing the Ethereum blockchain and the problems by implementing this screenplay.

Technological challenges

  • Anonymity The blockchain has bot called pseudo-anonymous because no one knows your identity on the network, but the network is semi-transparent and all activity is visiable to everyone. Can someone make a connection inbetween your real identity and the one on the blockchain, can the same person see every activity everzwijn performed by the account. Mixers can make it tighter to make the connection inbetween the two identities [Two] .
  • Privacy The contracts are run by the miners. Transactions are encrypted, but Ethereum does not have any zuigeling of homomorphic encryption enabled, meaning all gegevens that is to be opreated on by the network, will be available to everyone, including the account making the transaction. have outlined how to creating a similar network to Ethereum with homomorphic encryption .
  • Scalability There is a balance inbetween the security through decentralization and the scalability of the blockchain. If the brochure for mining i.e. helping decentralize the network, is set to a stage where many computers can mine without toegevoegd investment, the network is not able to perform that many transactions vanaf 2nd. There is a lotsbestemming of research going into the problem where one of the proposed solutions is sharding.
  • Wasted power usage with mining With thousands of machines mining for proof-of-work to secure the blockchain, only about four juist solution are accepted every minute. This means that a massive number of calculations are thrown away. Primecoin is using the mining to search for prime number chains [Trio] , while Ethereum is programma on moving to proof-of-stake, reducing the power consumption with 41% [Four] .
  • Legality With the rapid adpotion of the blockchain, is it uncertain how lawmakers will react to the technology. Government regulation is already ter place te Fresh York where a BitLicense is needed to produce cryptocurrency services.
  • timestamping lorem ipsum
  • Arbitrary Proof of Computation lorem ipsum
  • Code Obfuscation lorem ipsum
  • Privacy reputation systems
  • ny parameter for koden: gas lorem ipsum

I will concentrate on Solidity, efficiency, gas etc

  1. ^ slideshare.nipt/_hd/ibm-adept
  2. ^
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  4. ^ slideshare.netwerk/_hd/ibm-adept

Distributed overeenstemming

Ethereum Accounts

Ethereum is state transition system, using the blockchain technology to achieve decentralized overeenstemming. The blockchain wasgoed invented by S. Nakamoto and is what made Bitcoin possible []. The transactions te Bitcoin include petite scripts opening for more advanced transactions then a elementary switch of ownership. The Bitcoin scripting language is not Turing accomplish and does not include loops, spil this code can be uploaded by anyone and is executed by any pc ter the network. Ethereum wants to open for more advanced scripts, with turing completeness, which they call wise contracts. Ethereum achieve this by having the transaction sender pay for the resources consumed with gas. This way a denial of service will cost the attacker proportionally for every directive, and accidental loops te transactions will run out of gas.

Messages and Transactions

The state te Ethereum is built up of ’accounts’. An account is what you communicate with, being other peers or contracts te the network. A contract is a chunk of code living te the Ethereum network which can be called by users. Contracts can also be called by other contracts, permitting for a network of decentralized code to communicate together without human intervention.

While most blockchain technologies use the Unused Transaction Output (UTXO) paradigm, Ethereum instead uses Accounts.

Ethereum State Transaction Function

Code Execution

Blockchain, Proof-of-work and mining

The way S. Nakamoto opened for overeenstemming ter a decentralized network wasgoed by not only permitting any knot to participate te maintaining the validity of the blockchain (a ’miner’), but also by incentivising it. Transactions are grouped ter blocks and miners download all blocks, back to the very first block, the genesis block.


a block is an arbitrary number of transactions bundled together. The validity of the transactions is checked and cryptographic signatures (and checksums?) [] are used to prove that the block of validate transactions is a valid block. A miner creates a checksum of

  • all fresh and valid transactions
  • address of the previous block
  • a proof-of-work

“Easy to verify solutions Hard to find solutions Difficulty of finding solutions can be precisely quantified Provably inseparable from the block it secures”

Contracts &, the Ethereum Virtual Machine

Kontrakter skrives i solidity, tuinslang, Mutan (C) eller LLL (Lisp) EVM (virtuell maskin)


Using Ethereum

With this fundament they propose an autonomous decentralized peer-to-peer verhoging for the IoT where knots do not need to trust other peers using cryptographic instruments. IBM propose achieving the trustlessness with the blockchain technology. The blockchain also solves the problem of reaching overeenstemming with no master and liquefying assets however cryptocurrency. IBM has proposed assembling a handful of technologies from the bottom up, which they have named the Insider toneel.

IBM proposes an architecture up to the application layer, but what can a utter stack look like, from the application introduced to the user, down to the operating system running on the things. IBM leaves the top of the abstraction layer open by just telling that this is where the UI and Business Logic is. IBM furthermore contributes with some application layer examples: ’Appliance Self-service, Asset Sharing, Virtual Credit Management, Resource Bartering and Diagnostics’

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